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He enacted Qin's legalist reforms throughout China, notably the forced standardization of Chinese characters, measurements, road widths (i.e., cart axles' length), and currency.
His dynasty also conquered the Yue tribes in Guangxi, Guangdong, and Vietnam.
In 907, the Tang disintegrated completely when the local military governors became ungovernable.
The Song Dynasty ended the separatist situation in 960, leading to a balance of power between the Song and Khitan Liao.
The Song was the first government in world history to issue paper money and the first Chinese polity to establish a permanent standing navy which was supported by the developed shipbuilding industry along with the sea trade.
Between the 10th and 11th centuries, the population of China doubled in size to around 100 million people, mostly because of the expansion of rice cultivation in central and southern China, and the production of abundant food surpluses.
The Xianbei unified them as the Northern Wei, whose Emperor Xiaowen reversed his predecessors' apartheid policies and enforced a drastic sinification on his subjects, largely integrating them into Chinese culture.The invention of gunpowder and printing in the Tang dynasty completed the Four Great Inventions.Tang culture spread widely in Asia, as the new maritime Silk Route brought traders to as far as Mesopotamia and Somalia.whose central figures were later immortalized in one of the Four Classics of Chinese literature.At its end, Wei was swiftly overthrown by the Jin dynasty.